How and what flippers in nature and home conditions are multiplied. Description of methods

Fern

Ferns belong to the most ancient spore plants. Inhabit a wide variety of environmental conditions: in wetlands and water bodies, forests of tropical and temperate climate. The most famous representatives are Male, Orlyak, Ostrichnik. In the life cycle of ferns, horsages, spores dominated by spores.

The flourishing of ferns occurred about 358 million years ago and lasted about 65 million years, in honor of the ferns, the period of the Paleozoic era - carbon, or a coal period, which lasted the specified period of time. It is ferns who belongs to an active role in the carbon formation: in carbon forests, tree-like ferns were settled, reaching 40 or more in height.

Wood forms of ferns have been preserved to the present day, however, most representatives are grassy plants that have no cambium, and therefore there is no secondary wood.

Ferns belong to the group of vascular plants, as there are vessels - vascular fibrous beams, unlike moss that do not have veins and are not vascular plants. Mechanical strength is ensured by the deposits of sclerenhims around conductive beams (residents).

Unlike moss, ferns have a conductive tissue in stems and roots consisting of xylem and flolam. Note, I wrote a "root" - I didn't have the roots in the moss, instead there were rhizoids that perform a similar function to root. Roots of ferns, horsages and plane are always apparent and grow from the modified escape - rhizomes.

Structure

Consider the structure of ferns on the example of a typical representative - male panels. This is a widespread fern, typical of a climate of moderate latitudes. It is a perennial grassy rhizome plant.

Educated by a bunch of strongly dismembered leaves, departing from the root. Grow up the leaves with the top, forming curls - "Snails".

Note that the fern leaf is called Vaia (from Greek. Baion - palm branch). Unlike real leaves, Vaia has a non-deterministic top growth. The leaves have a petiole attaching to a stalk, which can continue in RAHIS - the main axis of the complex sheet corresponding to the central alcohol.

Fern life cycle

Ferrous leafy plant, shown above - Sporophyte (2N). Spiritophyte dominates in the life cycle of fernacid, unlike the moss cycle, where Sporefit, in fact, is an appendage of Gametophyte (reduced). On the underside of Wiji, there are sporangies that are collected in Russians - groups of near-locked sporangies. In spores (2N), controversy (N) are formed in the spores after meiosis.

In 2012, a group of scientists under the leadership of Xavier Nobley from the University of Nice found out that the sporangies had a special mechanism "Catapults", disputes from it fly at a speed of about 10 m / s.

Gaploid disputes (N) germinate in the outflow (N), a small plate (several mm) of the heart-shaped. The ingrowth of the green color is capable of photosynthesize and attaches to the soil with risoids. It forms men's and female genitals - followed by Andesteria and Archegonia. Spermatozoa (N), formed in Anteria, due to water (during the rain) enters the archegano, where it is merged with the egg (N) and the zygote (2N) is formed.

The zygota develops a germ that penetrates the fabric of Archegonia with the help of a special device - Gautory (from Lat. Haustor - dull, drinking). Gaustoria is a leg embedded in the tissue of the outflow and absorbing nutrients from it. The rapid growth of the embryo begins, the escape is formed, and then the adult plant is sporophyte (2N). The cycle closes.

The meaning of fern

Ferns are the main component of many forest communities, the link in the power chain - producers (organic producers). A person uses fern in decorative purposes. Young shoots of some ferns are edible and eaten: the shoots of the Orlyak, the leaves of the excitement of ordinary.

Male's shield has medical importance: an anthelminth drug is manufactured from its roots.

Bellevich Yuri Sergeevich 2018-2020

This article was written by Bellevich Yuri Sergeyevich and is his intellectual property. Copying, distribution (including by copying to other sites and resources on the Internet) or any other use of information and objects without prior consent of the copyright holder is prosecuted. To obtain the materials of the article and the permission of their use, please refer to Bellevich Yury .

Methods of breeding

Since ferns do not bloom, they do not multiply seeds. These plants are dispute. Therefore, often their reproduction occurs with disputes that serve as a substitute for seeds. In order to breed ferns by disputes, you need to carry out the following manipulations:

Collect ripen disputes. Disputes from these plants are located in special formations - sporangies. When ripening the dispute, the sporangia acquire a brown color

Please note that each species has its own ripening speed of material for breeding. Also disputes can be placed point in the lives

When ripening, they will boil; Storage them until maturation. Disputes should be carefully cut off with Wiray and put in the paper package in which they can succeed and divert. The package itself should be well closed, as the disputes are characterized by excellent volatility. The opening of the package is carried out only before starting landing the argument to the ground. Dostered disputes are like brown powder; Landing into the ground.

In order for the growing of the planting material successfully, you need to choose the right soil. For ferns, the ground can be purchased in a flower shop. Also, the earth can be prepared with their own hands. For sowing dispute, the soil may contain various components. Often use the soil prepared from the following components:

  • Sand and brown (horse) peat. This soil is prepared when mixing components in a ratio of 1: 3;
  • Sand and leaf land (1: 3);
  • Sheet land, sand and peat (1: 1: 2).

Here you can also use the soil for violets.

Sport disputes need differently than the seeds of other flower. Before planting disputes, cooked or purchased soil should be sifted to remove solid and large particles from it. Also before landing the house of the land, experienced flowerflowers are recommended to sterilize. For this there are various ways. But the simplest way to sterilize the land will be.

Landing the dispute is carried out into a shallow glass or plastic pot. A wet soil is placed in the container and a little tamper it. After that, on the ground, it is necessary to evenly distribute the dispute. Fucking the earth should not. Just pour enough.

Also for breeding the house you can use the ingrown of fern. This is the so-called vegetative reproduction. Here are used ferns sprouts, having a look of long and fluffy arrows. Also fern breeds. Some types of ferns can also multiply with leaves and broken kidneys. But there are very few such plants.

Ways of vegetative reproduction depend on your preferences and the presence of a particular fitting planting material.

Vegetative reproduction is carried out only in spring or autumn, when there is a cool weather. It will allow the plant to grow rapidly and grow. Under such conditions, in just a few weeks, the root starts the roots and starts to develop.

For reproduction, it is impossible to use plants with one point of growth. After dividing the bush and plant the material obtained into the ground, it is thorough watering.

Main ways

Each gardener knows that indoor flowers can multiply by seeds, cuttings, processes, bulbs, rhizome division and other no less popular ways. How the fermentation reproduction occurs, not everyone. Let's figure out how and what flippers multiply.

There are two types of ferns: sexual (sporophytes) and sex (Gametophytes). Sporophytes are grown in domestic flower growing, in which the sheet plate is usually rolled into the spiral. Miscellaneous reproduction of ferns can be carried out by dividing the bush, sowing the dispute, side shoots and brood kidneys.

So, we bring to your attention the most common partners of the ferns breeding among lovers of indoor flora.

Disputes

According to many flower water, the reproduction of ferns by disputes is one of the most complex and time-consuming processes. On the inside of adult leafy plates can be detected by browned dust - this is disputes. Disputes will serve as peculiar seeds for breeding a tropical flower.

Take a plastic bag and collect disputes into it. In the plastic container, put a mixture of sand and crushed peat, evenly distribute the disputes along the entire surface of the soil. Do not forget to moisten the soil carefully. To create a favorable microclimate, the container needs to be closed with glass.

After 1-1.5 months, the first shoots will appear in the form of a thick moss of bright green. As soon as the first leaves begin to slander, you can open the container.

Dividing bush

Modifying the fern by the division of the bush will be easy, if you first get acquainted with the advice and help of experienced gardeners. Before proceeding with a room flower transplant, it should be carefully inspecting it. To the bush can be divided into several fragments, it is necessary that each part had a root system and 2-3 sockets. To share a bush with one outlet does not make any sense, since single sockets do not take root.

Upon completion of the fission of the root, the landing of each fragment is placed in a separate flower pot. Do not forget to monitor soil moisture and air temperature. For quick and good rooting, it is necessary to adhere to the temperature regime in the range of + 18 ... + 22 ° C. Punched primer, low air humidity, too low either, on the contrary, the high temperature of the air to the room will lead to the death of transplanted ferns.

Vegetative way

Vegetative methods include lateral kidney reproduction and processes. But these methods of breeding room colors are not suitable for all varieties of fern. For example, the reproduction of brood kidneys is often used in the process of growing the bubble of bulbous, adiantum, Dorophestra Palia, etc.

How to grow fern from brood kidney, you ask? Consider this method in stages.

Carefully remove brood kidneys from the leaves, on which the roots were formed. Claimed material Place in a special container closed with glass

It is important to maintain a high level of humidity and air temperature about +24 ° C. Replacing in separate containers is recommended only when young shoots are well fixed and new leaves will be formed on them.

The processes that are long arrows on the leaves of fern are also used to reproduce. Take the tank with the nutrient soil, check the flower near the flower, climb the process to the soil and lock it.

General group characteristics

The fern is the genus of dispute plants, which relates to the department of vascular representatives of the flora and has 48 families, 578 genera and 10620 varieties. They prefer wet, cold and wetlands. Most plants grow in tropical forests. Some of them have large sizes and are similar to palm trees that reach a height of 16 meters, and their leaves are up to 4 meters long.

Places of propagation of fernal plants:

  • forest;
  • swampy terrain;
  • trunks and branches of trees;
  • water environment;
  • Mountain Gorge;
  • walls of houses;
  • desert;
  • Country roads;
  • farmland.

The fern is a very ancient form of life, coal is formed from his perennial sediments. In the form of the plant looks like a green escape with cider leaves.

Scientists believe that Fernicoids occurred from Plauan, but there is an opinion that the latter, as well as the MAY, the chests appeared from psofields.

Since ancient times there is a myth about a fern flower. If the Flowering Plant will see the Flowering Plant on the holiday of Ivana, it will find treasure on this place or find out how to get rich. Nevertheless, it is just a legend, because in fact the flowering stage does not exist in the fern.

Methods of breeding fern

There are several methods with which you can get new copies of the plant, namely:

  • dividing bush;
  • disputes;
  • side shoots;
  • brood (side) kidneys.

How to use them - depends on the type of fern.

How and when to share a bush?

The division of the bush is one of the effective ways to get a full-fledged plant. It is worth considering that it is not suitable for all ferns. You can only share those that have several growth points (nephrolyptum, adiantum, ptya). At the same time, each decene must have its own roots.

How do ferns prosecute disputes?

Spores in fern serve as a kind of seed substitute. They are formed on the back of the leaves. On the invalid of Waiy there are small bags - nozzles, and there are spores in them. When they ripe, the seas should be cut off with a particle of Wiray. They are stored in tightly closed paper bags up to sowing. The spores of the fern are very small, similar to the powder. They are easily scattered from the slightest blow of the wind and even breathing.

Slow disputes should be in a fine container, pouring there a thin layer of soil (up to 5 cm thick). It is better to use sand-peat soil or substrate for violets. The disputes must be sowed straight on top of the moisturized land and not sprinkle. Capacity cover with glass. When green moss appears on the surface of the soil - it will be sprouted spores. They still do not have roots, and the food seedlings are obtained through the rhizoids (hairs that sprout sprout). After two months from the moment of sowing, the roots and leaves begin to form. Moving the seedlings better in the aquarium, where the high level of humidity. Over time, it is pricted in pots.

How to root lateral shoots?

Most of the varieties of ferns produce processes. They grow up on the leaves and look like a long green arrow. To get a bush from the process, it needs to be rooted. To do this, there should be a container with nutritional soil and fix the escape in it.

How to propagate fern with broken kidneys?

Separate ferns have the property on the pets of the leaves to form lateral kidneys. So the bubble bulb is multiplied. Over time, the kidney is growing roots. Then it is removed and placed in a glass container with a lid. There should be warm and wet. When leaves appear on the kidney, it will be possible to put it in the ground.

Reproduction of fern

Reproduction of fern

Reproduction of fern disputes

The fern is a potent plant that does not have flowers and seeds, and in nature multiplied by disputes. At the bottom of the leaf of an adult plant, small tubercles are visible - this is "containers" with disputes.

Spores of fern

For breeding fern by disputes:

  1. In the fall of "containers" cut together with a piece of sheet and laid for drying into paper bags.
  2. At the end of January, disputes are sown in a box with soil substrate: peat (2 parts), leaf land (1 part), sand (1 part). The spores of the fern represent a small powder, which is covered with a thin layer on the surface of the soil, not sprinkling the earth, then moisturized from the sprayer, closed the box with glass and placed in a warm room.
  3. The disputes usually germinate on the 2nd month after sowing, then the glass should be removed in order to provide "kids" the influx of air. During this period, the embryos look like a thin layer of moss.
  4. But when there will be a closure of several copies into single plants in the "moss", then they should be searched into separate pots height 7-8 cm and a diameter of 10-12 cm.

Thus, by the spring you will receive a seedl of fern, ready for disembarking into an open ground.

Reproduction of ferns dividing bush

Lower-corneeling ferns (orery, orlyak) is easier to propagate the division of the bush than disputes. The division of the bush is usually made early in spring, after the end of spring frosts.

Reproduction of fern rhizable mustache

Some species of fern (neoplipis elevated and angry) have an overhead rhizuy mustache, of which young shoots grow.

Nephrolepis Exaltata (Nephrolepis Exaltata)

The mustache should be picked into the soil at a depth of 8-12 cm. And it is preparing to spill the ground with water.

Reproduction of fern with broken kidney

On the leaves of certain types of ferns (the bonnet, the Russian) are formed brood kidneys, of which young plants ("kids") are developing.

Coster Hair-shaped (Asplenium Trichomanes)

"Kids" should be separated from the sheet, put on the moistened surface of peat moss, cover each glass jar and put the seedlings into a warm shaded place in the house. "Children" are quickly rooted, and after 2-3 weeks you can safely plant in open ground.

What is a fern

Along with the ordinary for plants by the corneeling organ in Polypodiyta, instead of stems, leaves, flowers with seed boxes developed a sheet-like escape, which received the scientific name of Waia. A disputes are formed on Wayy, with the help of which one of the methods of reproduction and the development of ferns occurs.

Faperprint on stone

Now about 10 thousand perennial species of ferns are identified on Earth. In the moderate climate of Russia, they grow in wet shady forests, they are grown as a garden culture. The most common European species Polypodióphyta belongs to Ostrichnik, Orlyak, a shield. The fern of the Orlyak is collected in early spring, soaked, dried and used as a food product.

For your information! The cultivation of the Orlya in the garden can be negatively affected by domestic animals. In green parts of the plant, poisonous substances are dangerous for them.

Tropical views of Polypodióphyta are distinguished by a large variety of wai, may have tree forms. Some of them grow high above the ground on the branches of other plants. In the cold climate, the cultivation and reproduction of thermal-loving ferns and fermented plants (horsetail, pladen) is carried out at home.

Among popular indoor ferns are highlighted by inspelium with shoots resembling a green fountain; Blokhnum, whose wii grow like leaves at the palm tree; Nebrogepp - a lover of a large free space; Disconony - tall plant for office space; Platizerium, whose wija is similar to deer horns.

Tropical platitizerium on tree branches

Structure and development of ferns

Ferns consist of root system and leaves. There are two varieties of ferns:

  • Sporophytes - Mascable ferns;
  • Gametophytes - sex ferns (male and female).

Spores are plants from subtropical and moderate latitudes, they have a sheet plate initially rolled into a spiral. It is these plants that contain more often at home. Gradually, sheets unfold. The shapes and dimensions of the sheets of each plant differ, they are very diverse. In some species, the length of the sheet reaches 6 meters.

The scope of the leaves in an adult fern can achieve significant sizes.

Grow leaves in the plant very slowly. A sheet kidney underground develops for two years. Only for the third year, the altitude sheet plate is removed outwardly, and the leaf kidney dies to the autumn. Vaia is growing not from the base of the sheet, but the top. It is due to a long-term growth of the top wai length reaches large sizes.

Before the appearance of such a "snail" should pass a lot of time.

Sheets are needed by a plant for photosynthesis. On the underside of the plate they have disputes. Some types of disputes are formed on special sporing leaves, others - on sheets in the middle of the Wija or its top. Different species have various breeding methods. Ferns can multiply the root or brood kidney, which are formed on the leaves. Some varieties of ferns of poisonous.

Pros and cons in growing fern

Beautiful foliage and ease of care made this plant very popular among flower water. The main advantages of fern are:

  • unpretentious;
  • frost resistance;
  • Sharpness.

The most important lack of ferns is that they grow very quickly, filling everything around and crowding out other plants. So that your site does not turn into fern thickets, its growth must be monitored and limited.

The minuses, perhaps, can also be attributed to the fact that on the sunny side, the fern is unlikely to please you with its appearance: most varieties in the sun mines and pale.

Reproduction of ferns at home

Reproduction of ferns - scheme and description

How the fern multiplies, depends on the conditions of growth. In the natural environment, he breeds:

Spores of fern

With home reproduction, disputes are rarely used. The easiest and efficient - vegetative reproduction. The new plant is obtained from:

  • deer;
  • rooted cuttings and processes (lateral air escapes);
  • brood kidneys.

Vegetative reproduction

Side escape can be described as an arrow or a mustache on a sheet plate. It is used for breeding. It is enough to put next to the pot another container with the soil, bent and shook the arrow on it. In a wet substrate and on the light, the musten will start the roots after 1.5-2 months. Further, the young plant can be separated from the maternal bush and grow as usual.

Division bush

Another vegetative method is the rooting of brood kidney. Such a side process appears on a sticker plate. The formed kidney is well rooted in a fertile, wet substrate.

Interesting! Rooting will pass faster if the seedlings create greenhouse conditions.

A completely simple breeding method - dividing the bush. The procedure is carried out with an adult plant. The process looks like this:

  1. The soil in the pot is abundant.
  2. The bush is pulled out.
  3. The root system is divided into several parts.
  4. Each divine is planted in a separate container.

Important! The young plant should be replant annually. Unlike annual plants, a fern bush with age is only magnificent and more

For the good development of the room flower, the following conditions should be observed:

  • Maintaining high humidity. Especially after the inclusion of heating devices. It can be put next to the pottery with water, constantly moisturize the clayzit in the pallet, spray with warm, stretched water several times per day.
  • Watering exactly on schedule. After that, water from the pallet should be merged.
  • Making fertilizers. The plant better absorbs feeding in a dissolved form. The inclusion frequency is at least two times a month. Preferably use special compositions. You need to start feeding for the second year after disembarking.
  • Lighting. Culture requires a long daylight, but in a lace shade either with shading. In winter, the southern windows will fit, and when hot - oriental and western.
  • Temperature. Optimal is considered from +22 to +25 degrees.

Sexual reproduction of disputes

Sowing disputes for garden growing is carried out after the onset of sustainable heat. To obtain a home plant, disputes can be sown in spring and autumn. For sowing only formed disputes. Sowing process:

  1. Pretty ground.
  2. Well moistened.
  3. Disputes are sized.
  4. On top of them, the layer (2-3 cm) of the soil is poured.
  5. Capacity is covered with a film.

Growing from spores

After the appearance of the pigs, the film opens gradually.

Need to know! The process of germination of a dispute is long. Efficiency depends on the variety.

In indoor culture, several dozen species of tropical ferns are grown. These plants are unusually popular due to the shadowability, ease of content and relatively light reproduction. It is not difficult to grow young specimens. Room ferns breeding vegetatively and sowing dispute.

Ferns spread out only in the spring months . From the beginning of March to the end of April, these species are the fastest of the root formation, so the vegetative reproduction is carried out in this period. Spores of ferns germinate well at any time, sowing them as they ripen on the leaves of the plant.

There are 3 vegetative ways of reproduction of indoor ferns: the division of the bush, lateral grooves and brood kidneys. You can also multiply these plants by their natural way - sowing a dispute.

Consider the structure and reproduction of fern in more detail.

Division bush

Fern Delivery bushFor such a reproduction, a large ridden bush of plants with several sockets is suitable. In the spring, during a transplant, you can neatly divide the bush into several parts. It is important that each part contains 2-3 sockets and had roots.

Sharing a bush on small parts with one socket is not advisable - single sockets are usually not caring. From one large fern 2-4 new ones.

Fragments of the bush planted in separate pots with moisturized ground . The soil in pots should be maintained in a wet state and not to overwork until new leaves begin to appear. Otherwise, the young plant can perish. The temperature for rooting should be in the range of 18-22ºС.

Side shoots

mustache fernsSome species, for example, nephrebepis, has not only leaves, but also long aless rhizuy mustache, which play the role of both roots and side shoots. When a mustache in the water, they absorb her, the plant. Also, they can also be rooted and get new young ferns.

To roam the side escape, near the adult plant put a pot or container with moisturized soil (or for a start - a glass with water).

The mustache of the ferns is shallowly cheer into the ground or immersed in water . For successful rooting, the soil should always be wet, but not wet, and the temperature should not fall below 18ºС.

Usually after 3-4 weeks, the mustache is rooted and begin to produce the first leaves. But young plants can not be separated from the mother, while they will not grow 3 sheets. After that, they are ready for independent life.

Blind kidneys

Fern kidneyThe easiest way to get young fern instances is the landing of children formed on the leaves of adult plants.

In this way, not all kinds breed, but only the bonnetic, adiantum, dorophestra is fined and some others. On their leaves there are brood kidneys, of which young plants grow over time.

In nature, the babe itself leaves off the sheet and falls to the ground . At home, they can be separated from the sheet and land in separate pots with moisturized soil. It is necessary to choose the most mature processes that have already formed roots.

If the kids are formed only at the ends of the leaves, they can be rooted, without separating from the parent plant. To do this, near the plant put a container with a soil, a sheet with kids bend to the ground so that they are located on the surface.

After the fern's babes are rooted and new leaves will appear on them, they can be separated from their native sheet.

Sowing spores

Spider fernThe most difficult at home is the process of reproduction of ferns by disputes.

They are collected from mature leaves, on the reverse side of which there are brought dust - disputes. The leaves are collected in the package and periodically shake the disputes downtown on polyethylene.

For landing, the dispute is used by a container in which a mixture of chopped peat and sand puffs . The disputes are poured out of the package on a white sheet, and then neatly distributed over the surface of the soil. Soil moisturize, spraying water, and closed with glass, to create a constant humidity. The temperature is maintained at least 24ºС.

After 1-1.5 months, in the form of green moss appear on the surface of the soil. Of these, ferns grow in the future, but for this on the surface of the overpositions you need to create a water film. Therefore, the soil in the container is often moisturized by spraying water, and the glass is not removed.

The container is discovered when the first sheets of ferns appear on the overproofs, and when 3 sheets are formed on the sprouts, they are searched into individual pots.

What is the way more efficient

Modified ferns vegetatively easier. These methods guarantee almost 100% shoots of shoots, so usually only they are used at room reproduction of most types of plants.

The easiest way to reproduce ferns vegetatively! Sowing a dispute - the process is complex and laborious . It requires constant maintenance of the necessary temperature and humidity of the soil, even with a single drying of the Earth in the container, the entire sowing dies.

Therefore, the reproduction of disputes in the conditions of the apartment is ineffective. This method is urgently applied rarely and only for species that do not give melts and have a single point of growth.

Structure and development of ferns

The appearance and structure of ferns differs from flowering plants. The most prominent part of the fern is its Wiray leafy plates. They are large and dissected, many of them depart from the escape of the plant, forming a socket.

The shoots on the structure vary depending on the type of fern . They are high enough or shake on the ground. Ferns have well-developed roots that are formed on their shoots. Some species form powerful rhizomes.

Ferns do not form flowers. They multiply disputes that ripen on the bottom surface of sheet plates.

Their development cycle takes place with a change of 2 generations - sporophytes and gametophytes. A long-term copy, having leaves and forming disputes is called sporophyte.

Ripe disputes are spread with wind and germinate in wet soil, giving a new generation of ferns - Gametophytes.

These are small green overgrowns, similar in appearance on moss. Men's and female sex cells ripen on them, which in favorable conditions merge with each other, forming a fertilized cell on the underside of the outflow. Of it develops future sporophyte.

Care of sprouted fern

Ferns formed from overlays - young spores. They are planted into separate small pots with loose, well-skipping water and air soil. Its composition in equal parts should include:

  • Sheet land;
  • Coniferous land;
  • Peat.

In the mixture you can add a bit of washed large sand.

Pot for a young plant you need to take enough high So that its height is a little more width. Its 1/3 is filled with a shallow clay drainage.

From above, the earth mixture is poured into which the plant is planted. Blowing the seedling does not follow, the root system of most ferns is superficial. After disembarking from the surface of the soil to the edge, the pot must remain at least 2 cm so that it is convenient to water the flower.

Watering young ferns regularly, soil does not drive. Drying the soil may be destructive for them. But excessively moisturize the ground also should not. If water does not absorb into the soil, it needs to be merged. You should also pour water from the pallet so that it is not stood there.

Most indoor ferns steadstly carry dry air indoors . But young specimens in such conditions begin to push. It is necessary to moisturize the air near the plants with regular spraying of the leaves from the water sprayer.

Temperature when careing for young ferns should not fall below 20 ° C. They grow well with multiple lighting. Straight sun rays can leave burns on the leaves of plants.

Now you know how ferns are multiplied at home and as a subsequent need to care for them.

Explain, please, how do ferns breed? Brought a bush from a business trip, and then came to visit a friend. Now everything does not lag behind me, asks for itself such a flower. I feel sorry, myself was looking for him for a long time, but how to share, I do not know.

How fern breeds

If you want to turn your house into a cozy green oasis, but you do not want to mess with flowers, put a fern. This is a beautiful plant with cigrier leaves of bright color and the magnificent forms of particular care does not require. Wet air, scattered lighting, frequent spraying and moderate watering - that's all that he needs. In such conditions, the bush is rapidly growing, and it is possible to make a whole greenhouse. As you know, ferns bloom only in folk legends and fairy tales. However, this fact does not prevent them from raising offspring. How fern breeds are breeding, it is worth knowing these plants in their floral farm.

Methods of breeding fern

There are several methods with which you can get new copies of the plant, namely:

  • dividing bush;
  • disputes;
  • side shoots;
  • brood (side) kidneys.

How to use them - depends on the type of fern.

How and when to share a bush?

division bush

The division of the bush is one of the effective ways to get a full-fledged plant. It is worth considering that it is not suitable for all ferns. Only those who have several growth points are formed (nephrebis

, Adiantum, Pitch). At the same time, each decene must have its own roots.

Better and easier fern tolerate spring division. Also replant and multiply plants at the end of August.

How do ferns prosecute disputes?

Seedlings of fernSpores in fern serve as a kind of seed substitute. They are formed on the back of the leaves. On the invalid of Waiy there are small bags - nozzles, and there are spores in them. When they ripe, the seas should be cut off with a particle of Wiray. They are stored in tightly closed paper bags up to sowing. The spores of the fern are very small, similar to the powder. They are easily scattered from the slightest blow of the wind and even breathing.

Determine whether "seeds" ripened, it is possible in color of the Russians - they become brown.

Slow disputes should be in a fine container, pouring there a thin layer of soil (up to 5 cm thick). It is better to use sand-peat soil or substrate for violets. The disputes must be sowed straight on top of the moisturized land and not sprinkle. Capacity cover with glass. When green moss appears on the surface of the soil - it will be sprouted spores. They still do not have roots, and the food seedlings are obtained through the rhizoids (hairs that sprout sprout). After two months from the moment of sowing, the roots and leaves begin to form. Moving the seedlings better in the aquarium, where the high level of humidity. Over time, it is pricted in pots.

How to root lateral shoots?

Reproduction of shootsMost of the varieties of ferns produce processes. They grow up on the leaves and look like a long green arrow. To get a bush from the process, it needs to be rooted. To do this, there should be a container with nutritional soil and fix the escape in it.

Within 1-2 months, the arrow will increase its roots. Then it can be cut off from the mother's bush.

How to propagate fern with broken kidneys?

Side kidneysSeparate ferns have the property on the pets of the leaves to form lateral kidneys. So the bubble bulb is multiplied. Over time, the kidney is growing roots. Then it is removed and placed in a glass container with a lid. There should be warm and wet. When leaves appear on the kidney, it will be possible to put it in the ground.

Video about reproduction Fern Nellilipis division bush and siblings

In the life cycle of ferns is observed Alternation of sexual and most powerful generations .

Fern.png.

In summer, small brown tubercles are formed on the leaves of the fern. They are located SPOOANGIY in which numerous small Spore .

After ripening, the disputes are poured and spread by the wind. Being in wet soil, the dispute germinates and forms Potok (Sex generation - Gametofit ). The ingrown of fern exists independently of the sporophyte. It is a small green heart-shaped plate attached to the soil using rhizoids.

At its lower side, Anterias and Archegonia are formed, in which sex cells (spermatozoa and egg cells) are developing. In order for the spermatozoids to fall down to the egg and fertilization occurred, a drop of water is needed.

The resulting zygote is divided and formed from it germ . It is first fastened due to the contour, and then proceeds to independent meals and turns into an adult plant. it Casual generation - Sporophyte .

During the life of the fern occurs Change two generations - Sporophyte and Gametophyte.

Adult fern plant forming disputes - it Sporophyte (punish generation).

Peregon fern is Gamenaophyte (sexual generation) .

Shift.png.

The vegetative reproduction is common, which is carried out by root. Some species are also characterized by the reproduction of the kidneys.

Similarly, plain and chests are also breeded.

Sources:

http://decoratives-plants.ru/load/dokumenty/doklad_po_biologist_Na_Temu_Paporotniki/6-1-0-12

More than 20 species of various ferns are grown as indoor plants. They won popularity among flower water due to very simple content and reproduction.

These plants feel well with the lack of sunlight. They will not grow up of great work. Modify the fern can be several ways.

Structure

At the ancestors of these plants there was a fairly primitive structure, but for millions of years it gradually became more complex. Ferns spores are developed stronger than that of Mukhov, since he has a split body on the roots, stems and leaves, as well as vascular tissues. The main features of fern plants:

  • lack of strobils (modified shoots with disputes);
  • lack of Cambia (educational fabric in stems and roots);
  • Largeness.

Read more about the structure of ferns here.

Homemade

The most common types of home fern:

  1. Nefrolypt;
  2. pelleya;
  3. platitizerium;
  4. asplenium;
  5. maidenhair.

More information about the types of domestic fern is contained here.

Indoor ferns are perfectly multiplied at home. Next, let's talk in what way you can do it.

How to choose the best time?

The best time is considered early spring, especially if we talk about the reproduction of disputes. At this time, the plant comes up well with proper care. You can also be multiplied in the fall, but the probability of survival in this period is reduced.

In a period suitable for reproduction, brown boxes - seasons appear on the inside of the sheet, where disputes and spouts are located. Also, the fern can be multiplied by tubers, side shoots, rhizome and kidney division.

Disputes

The spores of the fern are poorly sparing, as they do not have the stock of water and nutrients. To begin rise, they require special conditions.

To begin the formation of sprout, the land must be loose and constantly wet. It is also important to ensure ventilation.

The air temperature in the room should be from +15 to +25 degrees.

How to plant and germinate?

Ripe disputes look like brown powder. To plant them, it is necessary to use one of the following types of ground mixture:

  1. Brown peat and river sand in a ratio of 3 to 1.
  2. Sheet land and sand in a ratio of 3 to 1.
  3. Sheet land, brown peat and sand in equal proportions.
  4. The finished excavation mixture intended for the cultivation of violets.

The pot needs to be filled with a wet substrate and a little tamper. The disputes are evenly and tightly scattered along the surface of the soil, after which the container is covered with glass to create a greenhouse effect. Temperature should be about +20 degrees.

Further conditions and care

After about 2 months, sprouts will appear and the first leaves. Glass with pot during this period should be removed every day for 2 hours, gradually increasing time.

When the glass is completely removed from young plants, they are surely regularly sprayed with water so that the upper layer of the Earth is wet. Also additionally follows 2-3 times to handle the sprouts with a solution of "epin" with an interval of 2 weeks.

Check out the video about the landing of the dispute and care for young sprouts:

Find out more information about the types of ferns: AdianTum, Asplenium, Blokhnum, Davalia, Nephrolypt, Pelleya, Platisterier, Phlebodium, Circater.

How is it growing vegetative?

Vegetative reproduction implies the use of a part of the plant to obtain a new instance.

The division of rhizomes

During the division of the root, it is necessary that each individual part has 2-3 sockets. This is enough for the new bush to form.

Single rosettes with a small number of roots almost never take out. After transplanting parts of the plant in a separate container, it is necessary for about 3 weeks to monitor the moisture content of the substrate in the pot.

Side shoots with sheet

To roighten the side escape, it is necessary near the adult plant to put any container with wet ground. The fern mustache should be slightly shopped. To roighten, the soil must be wet all the time, and the room temperature was not lower than +18 degrees.

Most often for rooting takes about a month, after which the mustache begin to form the first leaves.

But new plants can not be separated from maternal until the mustache will not produce 3 leafs. After that, they can survive independently.

Tubers

Among the bedroom ferns, tubers can be multiplied Nephrolepp. The process is carried out during a transplantation. Tubers need to be separated from the parent plant and put in a separate container filled with a nutrient substrate.

Soil in tanks with planted tubers should be maintained wet. The first shoots will appear in about 15 days.

Kidneys (kids)

This method of obtaining new specimens of the fern is considered one of the easiest. The kidneys are formed on such types:

In the leaves of adult plants, broken kidneys appear, from which you can grow young ferns. They should be separated from the sheet and put into wet soil. It is necessary to choose only the most mature processes that have roots.

How to sit correctly?

The division of the bush should be carried out only during the transplantation.

This is done in the event that small root rosettes were formed near the main plant.

They must be separated from the maternal bush with a part of the root and transplant into a separate pot. After that, a small bush should create greenhouse conditions, cover with glass or film.

What is the way to choose?

The easiest way to propagate the fern with division. A vegetative method practically guarantees the survival rate of young shoots.

Sowing a dispute is a more complex and time-consuming process. In addition, there is no guarantee that something will grow. It is necessary for a long time to maintain the correct temperature and humidity of the substrate. This method is usually applied only for those species that do not form lateral chains.

Useful video

Check out the video about the division of the bush in Fern Polypodium:

Of all the presented ways, it is best to multiply fern with the help of a bush dividing, as it is the easiest way. Moreover, such a method is suitable for most home species. There is also a variety of plants that can be multiplied by tubers. This is also an effective way, but it is not suitable for all ferns.

Read more about the care of ferns:

How fern breeds

How ferns breed - disputes and vegetative method

Ferns are ancient plants living on our planet. There are about 11,000 species on Earth. Thanks to its original leaves, they have long earned the attention of flower water and began to be used as home plants as an interior decoration and helpers in cleaning and humidifying air.

In nature, there are two types of ferns known to us:

  1. 1. Sporophytes - Mascable ferns;
  2. 2. Gametophytes are sex ferns (male and female).

Representatives of the first species grow in the subtropics, their leaves first rolled into the spiral and gradually with the development of the plant unfold. It is sporeophytes that are contained as indoor plants in houses and flat flower goods. The shape and size of the leaves for each fern variety differs from others. Grow leaves very slowly. Sheet kidney develops underground for several years, before seemingly to light in the form of an altechnic plate.

The following types of ferns are suitable for indoor breeding:

  • Adiantum (Adiantum) is an elegant plant with a pixel leaves located on thin dark brown stiffs. It grows very quickly, unpretentious, it is not bad to carry darkened places.
  • Asplenium (Asplenium) attracts attention to brilliant solid leaves of light green color, in the center of each of which there is an expressive dark vein.
  • Nephrolepis is an unpretentious plant with openwork airy long leaves of light green.

To water the fern at home, as the upper part of the soil is burned, this plant loves water, there is almost all the care of it in watering. A room fern transplant is carried out only in spring, if the previous pot has become Tesne. One of the most popular garden ferns is an icy Forest ordinary, also called a black fern. He calmly transfers frost to -20 degrees, growing rapidly in the garden. It is often used as a decorative plant in the country, he prefers shady places that are usually empty.

The process of reproduction of ferns by disputes is to collect ripening disputes, their storage in order to jerk and directly disembarking into the ground. Spores of fern are located in the coarse, which acquire a brown shade when the dispute in them is ripening. Cut disputes is necessary along with a piece of sheet, and then stored in a tightly sealed package from paper to full ripening. Ripened and ready-made disputes in the soil are a powdery substance of brown.

For sowing a split fern prepare one of the following soil mixtures:

  1. 1. Sand and brown peat - 1: 3;
  2. 2. Sand, leafy ground and brown peat - 1: 1: 2;
  3. 3. Sand and leafy ground - 1: 3;
  4. 4. Ready soil for violets.

The mixture will need to be cleaned from possible large particles and warm up in the oven, in order to destroy pests and seeds of weeding herbs. As a container for planting a fern dispute, use a shallow container, the thickness of the soil layer in it should be about 5 cm. On well, the controversy in advance is uniformly distributed to the disputes, without sprinkling them from above. The container is covered with glass and put in bright, but protected from sunshine place at room temperature.

Time germination dispute directly depends on the type of fern, it can be 3 weeks, and may occupy a year. Throughout the dispute, the dispute is supported by the humidity of the soil in which they are located, only with the help of the hydraulication of the pallet. From time to time, open the glass to put oxygen to disputes. Spring fern disputes look like a moss covering the entire surface of the soil. Gestroinated ferns at the very beginning do not have roots, they begin to appear only after 4-6 weeks.

The covering glass is removed gradually, starting to disclose plants for a couple of hours a day, and every time increasing the period of time. As soon as you taught the fern to the absence of a greenhouse effect, start sprinkling the sprouts with water. 2 times a week can be dissolved in water epin or other trace elements and spray plants with courses for 2 weeks per month. The developed plant you will have formed six months after germination, to transplant the fern to an individual pot can, as soon as the root system begins.

This method is used by the most patient flower. Beyond the birth of new representatives of Fernic, it is very interesting to observe, the stages of their development differ from the growth of most other plants, but initially it should be understood that this process will take a lot of time and will require you to care and maintain comfortable climatic environmental conditions.

It is much easier to multiply fern vegetative way. The root division of the roots is breeding garden varieties of fern, several types of rooms, such as: leaflets, adianatums and pelleys. Thus, you can propagate the fern in the transplant process, in the spring.

Note, only strong adult plants that have more than one point of growth are suitable for reproduction.

The division is carried out in a cool room - the root system is neatly cut, separating the sockets from each other, and then embark on each process in the ground and pour out. With the right procedure, the observing of plants is very high, as each process has already developed roots capable of absorbing the substances necessary for the growth of substances and microelements, as well as water. For some time, the root system will restore damaged areas and will begin the development of new branches.

There are some types of ferns that multiply through the kidneys on the stiff. This, for example, bulbs bubble. In such cases, the kidneys transplanted into greenhouse conditions, where constant humidity is supported. After the kidneys are rooted, they can be transplanted into a separate small size of the pot together with a part of the soil usual. Next, the rules of care will be the same as for young ferns grown in any other way.

As can be seen, the fern is a relatively noncainst plant, it is important only to take into account its tropical origin and create conditions identical to those that he is used. In return, you will get a wonderful assistant in landscaping your home interior or garden plot. Experts recommend putting a pot with a fern in children's rooms, not far from the written table of the child - it will contribute to the concentration of attention and amplifier, thanks to the above-mentioned ability of the plant to clean the airspace and saturate with oxygen.

Fern

Ferns belong to the most ancient spore plants. Inhabit a wide variety of environmental conditions: in wetlands and water bodies, forests of tropical and temperate climate. The most famous representatives are Male, Orlyak, Ostrichnik. In the life cycle of ferns, horsages, spores dominated by spores.

The flourishing of ferns occurred about 358 million years ago and lasted about 65 million years, in honor of the ferns, the period of the Paleozoic era - carbon, or a coal period, which lasted the specified period of time. It is ferns who belongs to an active role in the carbon formation: in carbon forests, tree-like ferns were settled, reaching 40 or more in height.

Wood forms of ferns have been preserved to the present day, however, most representatives are grassy plants that have no cambium, and therefore there is no secondary wood.

Ferns belong to the group of vascular plants, as there are vessels - vascular fibrous beams, unlike moss that do not have veins and are not vascular plants. Mechanical strength is ensured by the deposits of sclerenhims around conductive beams (residents).

Unlike moss, ferns have a conductive tissue in stems and roots consisting of xylem and flolam. Note, I wrote a "root" - I didn't have the roots in the moss, instead there were rhizoids that perform a similar function to root. Roots of ferns, horsages and plane are always apparent and grow from the modified escape - rhizomes.

Structure

Consider the structure of ferns on the example of a typical representative - male panels. This is a widespread fern, typical of a climate of moderate latitudes. It is a perennial grassy rhizome plant.

Educated by a bunch of strongly dismembered leaves, departing from the root. Grow up the leaves with the top, forming curls - "Snails".

Note that the fern leaf is called Vaia (from Greek. Baion - palm branch). Unlike real leaves, Vaia has a non-deterministic top growth. The leaves have a petiole attaching to a stalk, which can continue in RAHIS - the main axis of the complex sheet corresponding to the central alcohol.

Fern life cycle

Ferrous leafy plant, shown above - Sporophyte (2N). Spiritophyte dominates in the life cycle of fernacid, unlike the moss cycle, where Sporefit, in fact, is an appendage of Gametophyte (reduced). On the underside of Wiji, there are sporangies that are collected in Russians - groups of near-locked sporangies. In spores (2N), controversy (N) are formed in the spores after meiosis.

In 2012, a group of scientists under the leadership of Xavier Nobley from the University of Nice found out that the sporangies had a special mechanism "Catapults", disputes from it fly at a speed of about 10 m / s.

Gaploid disputes (N) germinate in the outflow (N), a small plate (several mm) of the heart-shaped. The ingrowth of the green color is capable of photosynthesize and attaches to the soil with risoids. It forms men's and female genitals - followed by Andesteria and Archegonia. Spermatozoa (N), formed in Anteria, due to water (during the rain) enters the archegano, where it is merged with the egg (N) and the zygote (2N) is formed.

The zygota develops a germ that penetrates the fabric of Archegonia with the help of a special device - Gautory (from Lat. Haustor - dull, drinking). Gaustoria is a leg embedded in the tissue of the outflow and absorbing nutrients from it. The rapid growth of the embryo begins, the escape is formed, and then the adult plant is sporophyte (2N). The cycle closes.

The meaning of fern

Ferns are the main component of many forest communities, the link in the power chain - producers (organic producers). A person uses fern in decorative purposes. Young shoots of some ferns are edible and eaten: the shoots of the Orlyak, the leaves of the excitement of ordinary.

Male's shield has medical importance: an anthelminth drug is manufactured from its roots.

© Bellevich Yuri Sergeevich 2018-2020

This article was written by Bellevich Yuri Sergeyevich and is his intellectual property. Copying, distribution (including by copying to other sites and resources on the Internet) or any other use of information and objects without prior consent of the copyright holder is prosecuted. To obtain the materials of the article and the permission of their use, please refer to Bellevich Yury .

How ferns breeding in nature and in the garden

The reproduction of ferns is the process of breeding a spore decorative plant at home. Initially, he was considered a wild plant, which grows exclusively in vivo. Today, the many dacrooms are engaged in breeding ferns to create an attractive landscape design of the garden plot. Of the 11 thousand species, only 2000 types are considered, which deteriorate not only naturally, but also sediate, process.

How does the reproduction of ferns in nature

Usually, in natural conditions, ferns breed themselves with a dispute or brood kidney. During the entire life cycle, the plants pass the stages of sporophyte and gametophyte. Sometimes when the root system is spread and an increase in new organisms, an independent settlement occurs through the genital branches. In such places there is a stroke, which originates on the site of the spore pocket.

The process of reproduction is simple: sporangies are formed on Wiyay, in which disputes with a single set of chromosomes are developing. After ripening, the disputes spread over water or wind. The fern breeds disputes only in favorable temperature conditions. Finding into similar conditions, the switch germinates, then fixes on the surface with the help of rhizoids. In the subsequent part of the plate, sex cells with sperm and egg cells are developing. After complete ripening, fertilization and the origin of the zygota occurs. The embryo is powered by a contrary until he finds his own roots. Thus, a real shrub grows out of the embryo or gametophyte.

How can you breed a fern in the garden

In gardening use several types of ferns reproduction: the division of the bush, seedlings, disputes, root kidneys. Previously, the collection of sporangies for the purpose of pursuing the dispute at home. The breeding process was to prepare the planting material, which is stored in tightly sealed envelopes and plant in wet soil.

After landing, the tray with seeds are covered with dense polyethylene or glass to create the necessary microclimate. The first shoots appear in 20-30 days. The rhythm of the risoid greenery is treated 3 times a day with epin solution. Protallium or fern seedlings are planted into separate peat glasses, which will absorb the excess moisture during watering. When the sprouts reach 5-10 mm, the seedlings are picked. For 6 months, 3 transplants are carried out, then at the age of 8 months the fern planted in a flower bed or flower pot.

Street plant is dismissed by dividing the bush, which fade in early spring. Well digging holes, then divide the main bush into several small parts. Before planting, cutting rotten parts of the plant and rush to the ground. Daughter bushes begin to develop after a week of acclimatization on a new land. This feature of the reproduction of ferns is noticeable for weekly letters of branches, which leaves after rooting.

The boarding material in the form of a dispute can not always be collected on time or purchase a quality product in the store. However, seedlings may not go into growth, if not ensuring comfortable conditions for microclimate and soil.

What conditions are required for breeding fern

Basically, comfortable conditions for favorable plant development - high controlled humidity in the room or moistened soil on the street. The optimal time to start the vegetative reproduction of the ferner is an early spring with a constant positive air temperature. Seating bushes are also made in the summer after the rain, when the Earth does not require additional moisture. The fern does not dominate outside plants, therefore it can coherent with various types of shrubs.

The less often the gardener plans to water the plant, the further into the shadow the bushes. The plant rooted and develops well with any form of lighting. When landing on the sunny side of the site, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the bush and soil. Fast swelling branches - a clear indicator of lack of moisture and vitamins. Effective watered like a summer shower after sunset from the petty watering can do fern lush and bright. It is worth noting that the shadow ferns are more branched, whereas in the sun are growing with compact bushes with a bright greens.

How to breed a fern by the division of the bush

The effective way to breed the bush, which can be done in any warm season of the year, is to divide the bush. To begin with the day before the seating, the roots of the plants are abundantly poured with water. According to the description and diagram of reproduction, ferns are planted to a depth of 20-30 cm, although the planting hole is digging down by 50-70 cm. Flood flowing with rubble mixed with substrate and fertilizers. The bushes are divided into 4 small pieces so that the roots are not injured strongly. On each part of the plant should remain 2 or 3 outlets. Rhizomes without kidney growth will long takepoint or may not be rooted.

On the substrate at the bottom of the wells, the roots gently spread, then the earth is sprinkled. After landing, the fern is watered and sprayed with a diluted solution of phytoncides from insects. In the first year of growth, make a roasting circle for watering and mulch the roots with hay or large sawdust. If the leaves begin to shut up or coated with rust, you need to make a compost or mineral fertilizer. Watering methods need to alternate: the shower of the watering can 2 times a week and 1 roasting watering. The picking is done only if necessary if the bush is not accepted or the soil is too heavy, sour.

How to propagate fern disputes

The cultivation of ferns from the dispute is a rather laborious process of cultivation of the shrub, followed by special care until the first transplant. The planting material is acquired in corporate stores, although the process of collecting sporangies can be done independently.

Disputes can be planted at any time of the year, if the landing is produced for growing room fern. Street spore plants plant early autumn or spring. The disputes scatter on the surface of the wet soil, then sprinkled with a layer of Earth in 3-4 cm. The kidney is sprayed from the sprayer and covered with glass, food film so that condensate was going inside inside. After the first shoots appear, the coating is removed during the daytime, and when the transtallium appears, make a seating on the pots.

Before the formation of the first leaves, the seedlings are kept under glass and open for 2-3 hours. With frequent and moderate watering 2-3 times a week, the sprouts will quickly go into growth. The room requires a constant plus temperature + 20-23 ° C. Wild varieties are more adapted to emergency conditions, but to collect sporangies in the forest it is difficult to subjend time. This is not the most effective way to breed the fern, but when ensuring proper care and preparation of the planting material, you can grow a healthy plant.

Is it possible to grow fern from seeds

In no case cannot be confused by fern disputes with seeds. Planting material is prepared independently. As soon as sporangies are formed on the lower sheets, making cutting several branches. Spore bags will not have time to reveal, and when you will visit, they will be ready for drying. Seeds are removed from sheets and dried under gauze indoors with low humidity. Modified fern seeds begin in mid-March or in late April.

Seeds are planted into the ground when they can be reckoned to the touch. The method of growing shrubs is almost no difference from the dispute, except that the disputes do not always germinate and most of the landing material dies at the stage of development to Protallium. In the first 2-3 months, watering is carried out 1-2 times a week. The minimum temperature for landing on the street is allowed to + 10 ° C, in the room to + 15-18 ° C. At the age of 6 months, they make a transplant to a new soil, feed with phosphates. At the age of 1-2 years, the bushes are divided into seedlings.

Conclusion

The reproduction of ferns is a fairly exciting and informative case for lovers to decorate their own garden with a lush greenery. The plant is unpretentious to growing conditions, but requires close attention at the stage of breeding and growing after planting. Timely feeding and water procedures will contribute to the favorable development of the fern. Lush and healthy shrubs please the gaze of dachens and gardening lovers.

Room fern: Features of care and cultivation

Fern (Polypodiophyta) - one of the oldest representatives of the plant world, which grown on our planet millions of years ago. In total there are more than 10 thousand species of ferns belonging to 300 birth and united by one department. Plants are resistant to different weather conditions, but there are not so many varieties for breeding at the house - polypodium and pelleya, fern nephroles, platitizerium and adiantum, some others.

Plant Features

Ferns are one of the most ancient plants of our planet.

Ferns grow in different climates and natural environments - in the meadows and swamps, in forests, even on trees. But most of all they are distributed in the tropics. And it was the tropical varieties that came across home flowerness. There are also types resistant to frozen. Their gardeners are glad to grown on household plots.

All types of ferno-shaped consist of two parts: roots and openwork, centered, curved leaf leaf, called Wiyia. Most plants have half-disseated sheet plates, but there are species with solid sheets of various shapes and sizes.

Fernic-shaped are mysterious and mysterious plants, which are mentioned in many legends. For one of them, the fern blooms once a year - on the night of Ivan Kupala. Despite the legend, the plants do not appear flowers, the fruits and seeds are not formed. The fern breeds disputes like mushrooms, mosses and algae.

The ferner has a characteristic feature: the plant is very endless in nature, but may not survive at home even with proper care and creating optimal content conditions. Plants are indices of air purity: when entering polluted and dusty atmosphere, the fern leaves are quickly faded, it dies.

The fern cleans the air and has healing properties, helps with bleeding, eczema, climbing, but at the same time the rhizome of the fern is poisonous, and it is necessary to prepare ragners, strictly observing the recipe.

Sort

Types of fern, grown at home, not so much.

  1. Maidenhair. Plant with thin, but sturdy stems and elegant Wiha loves warmth, shadow and moisture. Adiantum is better grown in winter gardens and terrariums than at home. The names of the grades of adiantum - Raddi, gentle, fine-pointed, modeling hair.
  2. Asplenium. Loves shadow and wet air. The houses are divorced several varieties of asplenium, which in appearance are completely different from each other. This is an asplenium nesting and bulbous, borious.
  3. Nefrolyptic. The plant loves the space and does not tolerate the neighborhood. Wiji Nezololpis is strongly dissected, which creates a unique openwork effect. Most often grown nefrolyptovy railing, care for which is quite simple. Nephrolepp is also multiplied by simply - the division of a large bush or siblings.
  4. Blekhnum (otherwise Derbian). Croon plants reaches about 1 m in diameter, and rigid wiis look outwardly resemble palm trees. Most often there are varieties - Blekhnum humpback and Brazilian.
  5. Davalia. Plant with a very thick root. Because of this feature, he was given the folk name of the bold or squirrel legs.
  6. Platizerium (otherwise the plogram). For a flat, the presence of large, spectacular, divided into the blades of the leaves, externally similar to deer horns.
  7. Disconony. A small young plant in adulthood can reach 3 m, suitable for spacious interiors.
  8. Pelleya. Pelley loves dry habitats, which distinguishes it from other species. More than others are common to pelleya rounded and green.
  9. Polypodium (otherwise multicast). The plant with strongly dissected leaves has two features: the rhizome and ability to grow over the surface and the ability to grow in places with dry air.

A large plant looks very effectively in suspended porridges and on stands, and its beautiful pasta leaves are used to design bouquets and flower arrangements - torn Wiray fern restores pretty quickly.

Features of care

The main care of the fern at home involves regular watering and providing sufficient air humidity - most types do not tolerate drought. No less important, causing a ferner at home, to ensure optimal temperature and lighting. It is necessary to correctly carry out a transplant and reproduction of fern. With an illiterate content of a room flower will die quickly.

If the plant is located next to other colors, it is important to make sure that its delicate openwork leaves are not squeezed. Wiray are very fragile and require free space. If you damage or dry leaves, they need to be deleted in a timely manner, allowing you to freely develop young Wiyam.

Watering

Room fern loves water. Long drought can destroy the plant. As soon as the upper layer of land dries, it must be watered. At the same time, excess moisture is harmful to the root system, and can lead to the death of the fern. With excessive moisture, the leaves are covered with yellow and brown stains, the root begins to rot, the plant completely dry out. It is necessary to water it several times a week with water.

It is important to remember that if the home fern is to cut, and then pour, the plant will not restore anyway.

Light

Room fern loves good lighting, in the shade can die. It is best to place a plant on the window from the southwest side. With sufficient access of bright scattered light, the leaves of the plant will be large, green and healthy.

Temperature

The average optimal temperature for the fern flower from 15 to 22 ° C. But more specifically the temperature mode needs to be selected, taking into account the variety of the plant. There are types:

  1. Heat-loving (nephrolapp, asplenium, platitizerium) - should be contained in winter at a temperature not lower than 18 ° C;
  2. Low-resistant to low temperatures (polypodium pound, pelleya) - withstand a decrease in temperature to 12 ° C.

All kinds of indoor fern plants do not tolerate drafts, while love fresh air. The room with flower needs to be regularly ventilated.

Priming

The soil for the fern should be loose, to pass the air and water well, otherwise the moisture will be stored in the tank, which will ultimately lead to reinforcement of the roots. It is optimal that in the soil contained a large number of recovered leaves, slightly less needle and peat.

So that the water is not stored, the pot is laid out the drain layer from the ceramisit.

For ferns, a soil is suitable with a slightly elevated level of acidity (pH indicator from 5.0 to 6.6). The soil is easy to determine with a litmus paper. To do this, 2 g of soil should be mixed with 10 ml of distilled water, shake well, give a precipitate. Then in the liquid above the sediment, to lower the litmus paper. At pH = 5, it will become yellow, and at pH = 6 - greenish yellow.

Making fertilizers

Room fern is usually normally growing and feels well without additional feeding. But the fact that the flower leaves pale and become small, indicates a lack of soil nutrients.

The need for feeding more often occurs in the phase of active growth - late in spring and summer. You can fertilize the flower with liquid complex mineral fertilizers, for example, a solution, in 1 liter of which contains:

  • potash salt - 1 g;
  • Superphosphate - 1.5 g;
  • Ammonium Selitra - 1.5 g

With great care, the organic is used for fern - it can cause a burn. Some flower products are periodically added teaweed in a pot or watered it weakly brewed tea.

Transfer

The plant fern is fast-growing, and therefore at the young age they transplanted every year. Adult specimens recommend replanting every 2-3 years. Fern transplant is carried out in spring.

In order not to cause the harm to the plant, they advise him to transplant it into a larger pot of transshipment. During the transplant, the base of the rosette of the leaves cannot be deepened.

The ground from the roots of the room flower is not cleaned not to damage the fragile roots. The exception is the disease of the room flower at which it is necessary to detect damaged roots and remove them.

The fern painfully perceives the transplant procedure, and its recovery can last several months.

For fern transfers, you can buy a ready-made soil substrate with an acidic environment or cook the soil yourself. To do this, take:

  1. Listed land - 1 part;
  2. HOUSE - 1 part;
  3. peat - 1 part;
  4. bone flour - 1/5 of part.

You can use another soil containing:

  1. 3 parts of sheet soil and peat;
  2. 2 pieces of turf land;
  3. 1 part of the humidity and sand;
  4. 1/2 cup of ash;
  5. Handful of moss Sfagnum.

Reproduction

Fern can multiply:

The reproduction of the fern by disputes is very complex, laborious, and at the same time an inefficient method. This method of reproduction of fern does not even use professional flowerflowers.

Brown points on the bottom surface of the sheet are not pests, but spores that the plant breeds.

At home, indoor plants breed the way to divide. Only young root rosettes are suitable for breeding. It is necessary to separate them very carefully, so as not to cause harm to an adult plant. The division is better to exercise in cold, cloudy weather.

The division of division is carried out in spring, and a day before the procedure, the fern should be abundantly pouring.

How to care for a fern, who recently planted? It is necessary to create a suitable humidity of air (about 70%) and abundant irrigated for at least 2 weeks. Peeling air and land in pot can destroy the home fern.

Problems in growing

If it is incorrect to care for the fern at home, it is sick, more often amazed by pests.

  • Nematode. Amazes indoor ferns when watering with cold water containing a lot of chlorine. Leaves of plants become yellow, dry. The only way to save him is to transplant to a new pot, after processing insecticides. But not always treatment is successful, in some cases a decorative fern dies.
  • Shield, TRIPS, TLL. More often attack the flower fern, contained indoors with overly dry air. Warning Flower Defeat will help frequent spraying, periodic warm shower. If pests appeared, the plant is treated with insecticides.

Diseases and pests for ferns are not the only problem. Flower, who have a fern of the house, often face the problem of drying leaves. Homemade ferns persistently react to inappropriate conditions of content, which is manifested by yellowed, dry wihy.

The reasons for drying the plant a lot. It can be:

  1. Low or, on the contrary, high (more than 25 ° C) air temperature;
  2. use for watering cold water;
  3. watering with water containing a lot of chlorine;
  4. dry air, the presence of heating devices near the room flower;
  5. The impact of direct sunlight (the leaves first wither, then dry out);
  6. Growing in a close pot or lack of nutrients in the soil (the leaves become pale, and their tips are yellow).

Fern leaves can darken and dry out due to drafts.

Where can one buy?

Buy fern can be in greenhouses, specialized flower shops or on Internet portals. The cost of the plant depends on its variety and sizes:

  • Nevelgeppis Boston and asplenium nesting height 25 cm - about 800 rubles;
  • Asplenium with a nesting height of 65 cm - 5,500 rubles;
  • NEFROLOLEPISS Eased with a height of 40 cm - 2 100 rubles;
  • Nefrolypt Vital and Sonata - 3 200 rubles.

The fern perfectly decorates any interior. But it will be healthy and lush in the case of constant maintenance and creation of suitable conditions. Only with good lighting, timely watering and frequent spraying openwork Wiray flower will delight with their beauty and grace.

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